How obesity is becoming a widespread disease

Metabolic syndrome positivity was determined using the World Health Organization WHO classification, where at least three out of the following five factors are simultaneously present in an individual - insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol or low HDL levels, high triglycerides, and hypertension. The average age of the patient at diagnosis was 60 years, and the average follow-up time was 48 months.

Among the patients studied, 34 percent were obese, as defined by BMI, and 19 percent had metabolic syndrome. Samiei and colleagues found a higher percentage of obese patients in the high-risk group Samiei noted that because this was an observational, retrospective study, future work should include the design of large, multi-center prospective studies.

On the other hand, the obesity paradox, is widely observed in most of the patients with existing CVDs, indicating a better prognosis for the obese patients.

Results from large RCTs focusing on cardiovascular implications of weight loss interventions are controversial. This review benefits from a comprehensive search strategy, designed to retrieve extensively studies related to our research problems. We anticipate our study could provide comprehensive and concrete evidence for the weight management.

Thus, we tried to extend previous work by including numerous new studies and broad the interventions not restricted to lifestyle or pharmaceutical interventions. The present study will mainly focus on the cardiovascular health, thus we will try our best to carry out comprehensively subgroup analyses to examine the influence of weight loss on every cardiovascular outcome.

Common to most aggregate data meta-analysis, significant and unavoidable heterogeneity may exist. Considering this, the statistical analysis will be accomplished with the guidance of experienced statistician. The common limitation of data aggregation is the risk of ecological fallacy.

To deduce more reasonable conclusion, the results will be interpreted by experienced cardiovascular expert to give a more reliable and applicable recommendation for public. Yingke, Zhao drafted the preliminary version of this protocol.

Yingke, Zhao, Branda Yee-Man Yu, Yanfei Liu will contribute to the literature search, screening, data selection, extraction, risk of bias assessment. The final analysis of data for all the included studies will be completed by Yingke, Zhao, with Tiejun Tong for statistical consultation, and Yue, Liu for cardiovascular related content.

Yue, Liu, as corresponding author, is the guarantor of this review. All the 5 authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Medicine Baltimore v.

Medicine Baltimore. Published online Dec Find articles by Tiejun Tong. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 17; Accepted Oct Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.

Abstract Background: There is widespread obesity paradox in cardiovascular diseases, the cardiovascular influence from weight management remains controversial. Objectives: This review is designed to assess the association between weight loss and cardiovascular outcomes. Methods: Clinical trials including randomized control trials, observational studies reported a weight change before and after weight interventions including lifestyle intervention, as well as pharmacotherapies were included.

Results and conclusions: The results of this systematic review could provide reliable and concrete evidence for weight loss and its cardiovascular benefits. Prospero registration number: CRD Keywords: cardiovascular outcomes, obesity, systematic review, weight loss.

Introduction Obesity is a surging problem in most countries listed as the second leading cause of preventable death following cigarette smoking. Objectives The primary objective of this review is to investigate whether intentional weight loss was associated with satisfactory cardiovascular outcomes.

Methods 3. Eligibility criteria Publications meet the following criteria will be eligible: 1. Outcome measurement A comparison will be made with weight loss interventions versus no intervention. Search strategy We will systematically search, and reference lists, using terms relating to the population, interventions, and outcomes. Table 1 Key terms used for developing a comprehensive search strategy.

Open in a separate window. Table 2 Preliminary search strategy: PubMed format.

Data management All the literature search results will be combined and uploaded to one single EndNote V. Selection process The study selection will be accomplished via 2 stage. Figure 1. Data extraction All the required data will be double extracted by 2 authors using a standardized data extraction form. Risk of bias assessment Risk of bias for RCTs will be assessed following the Cochrane risk of bias guideline.

Data synthesis We will firstly adopt a narrative method for data synthesis; in which studies are grouped by targeted participants with a history such as diabetes, CVDs, chronic cancers to generally summarize the evidence for the relationship of weight loss and primary outcomes.

If we find selected studies bearing sufficiently homogenous, our narrative synthesis will also described subgroup analyses, relevant to our secondary research question, including 1.

Ethics and dissemination Ethical review is not required as this protocol is for a systematic review since there is no direct involvement of patients in the whole process. Discussion Obesity or overweight has been long regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Strengths and limitations of this study This review benefits from a comprehensive search strategy, designed to retrieve extensively studies related to our research problems.

Author contributions Yingke, Zhao drafted the preliminary version of this protocol. Conceptualization: Yue Liu. Data curation: Yanfei Liu.

Project administration: Yue Liu. Supervision: Yue Liu. Writing — original draft: Yingke Zhao.

Obese men may have higher chance of recurrence following radical prostatectomy

Yue Liu orcid: X. As Paul Farmer underlines, the identification of power regimes and biopolitics should always be contextualized If the identification of bodily difference happens in contexts where bodies are different from a European standard and therefore removed from their agency, to recognize a bodily difference, or a local biology, might be useful to reorganize the basis of the biomedical standardized indexes and global health planning. In the name of a general concept of health, WHO sets universal guidelines to promote and fund projects aimed to fight the obesity pandemic, with the only result of strengthening its own leading position within the global economy.

It is important for health promoters to recognize that because these are not the ways in which health, mothering, childhood, food and eating are constructed in the everyday practices codified as tradition [.

I also agree with Nichter when he invites us to monitor carefully the social representation leading global health policies and projects, the yardstick used to evaluate the success of public health projects and the impact of both development dollars and global policies on the single territories.

Stanford, Stanford University Press.

How obesity is becoming a widespread disease

Body, Self and Society: the View from Fiji. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Il peso del corpo.

Milan, Unicopli. Sofferenza e violeza strutturale. I testi fondamentali. GARD M. London, Routledge. Fat, a Cultural History of Obesity. Cambridge, Polity Press. Dissertation in Cultural Anthropology.

Manoa, University of Hawaii. WHO Press. Eating Themselves to Death. LOCK M. Berkeley, University of California Press. Becoming Tongan: An Ethnography of Childhood. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press. Tucson, University of Arizona Press.

Obesity in the Pacific: Too Big to Ignore. Vierzon, Apia. These Roots Remain. Honolulu, University of Hawaii press. Social Aspects of Obesity. New York, Gordon and Breach Press.

National Nutritional Survey of the Kingdom of Tonga. I due dogmi: oggettività della scienza e integralismo etico. Milan, Feltrinelli. WHO, New Horizons in Health. Western Pacific Regional Office. WHO, a. WHO, b.

Obesity in the Asia-Pacific Region.

Weight reduction and cardiovascular benefits

Who Regional Office for the Western Pacific. WHO, c. Redefining Obesity and its Treatments.